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Encouraging History Teachers To Use ICT


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#1 Andrew Field

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 05:21 AM

A survey carried out in 1999 discovered that the main reason teachers used computers in their teaching was because they felt they ought to1. History, the same as every national curriculum subject, has clear requirements to use ICT (Information Communication Technology - the term for the use of computers in education in Britain). It seems that history teachers thus feel a burden to make use of ICT. Approaching the issue of ICT from this angle is flawed. As Terry Hadyn has recently suggested2, the DFES approach that "there is no place for scepticism about the role of new technology in education"3 is a total antithesis to the skills we teach in history - encouraging people to make judgements based on evidence and experience.

In this seminar I will suggest how history teachers can be encouraged to make use of ICT in their lessons. The fundamental approach is not backed up by the notion"because they have to", but rather the infinitely preferable "because of the benefits". I do not believe there is a single history teacher in the country who is not excited by a new method or approach to teach an issue or topic. If we always consider the implications of history first, and ICT second, the beneficial use of ICT becomes much clearer. Ask not what history can do for ICT, ask what ICT can do for history!

History teachers should only make use of ICT when they can identify clear benefits. There is no point at all using ICT just for the sake of it. For an ICT competent teacher, it is very easy to get students in the ICT suite, but what is actually done there is key. Good practice will stimulate interest and a keenness to get involved. Those history teachers who are keen to use ICT can encourage others through good practice. From personal experience I have found that successful ICT-based work I have tried with students has been talked about by other students themselves, who in turn enquire why they didn't get the opportunity. Very soon, they all were getting the opportunity. Thus good practice stimulates interest and in turn encourages teachers to use ICT.

The major issue for many teachers is confidence in using ICT. Having battled to gain control of 9XY on a Friday afternoon, it is going to take something with huge benefits to encourage the teacher to uproot from the relative comfort of their own classroom and take a risk in the ICT suite. Added to this if a school network is unreliable or computer support unavailable, the majority of teachers will quite obviously feel it isn't worth the risk.

So, what can be done to encourage teachers to use ICT? Small steps are the key. If teachers are not confident to use ICT, hold a department meeting in an ICT suite and lead them through an example lesson. Help illustrate how effective ICT can actually be incredibly easy to teach and hold significant teaching and learning benefits. The use of basic ICT applications such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher and Access is the best way in. There are many such examples from the sites connected with this forum, or indeed the burgeoning number of history publications and high-quality courses. Using a blank or pre-prepared frame in one of the generic ICT applications can provide students with an excellent lesson. It is a simple use of ICT, but can lead to higher level history work. As Ben Walsh now famously wrote in 19884, Word isn't a typewriter, "it is an awesome tool for handling information".

There is a large bank of ICT-based history lessons produced by teachers. The sites connected with this forum, and the Association of Teachers' Websites have many pre-prepared lessons that have been tried and used in the classroom. There is an awesome number of online resources, many of which I have tried to link to in the topic sections of my SchoolHistory.co.uk site. It has been referred to before, but the teachers' guide available from the Public Record Office's Learning Curve website offers excellent, extensive and practical guidance.

An immense amount of work has been done to help teachers make effective use of ICT within history - and naturally this work is continually developing. Criticially assess the ICT-based history lessons you come across. Do they help you achieve your historical aims and objectives? Can you identify how they will benefit your students? If so, use them - if not, post on this forum or feedback to the site owners so the activities can be appropriately developed.

So, in short, the way to encourage history teachers to start using ICT is to lead with good practice. Make sure that any ICT-based lesson is history using ICT rather than the other way round. Very often low-level ICT tasks encourage high-level history. Make sure the historical objectives of the ICT use are clear, and highlight how ICT helped achieve these objectives. Simple ICT, effective history would be the key thing that can encourage history teachers to use ICT. They don’t have to be involved with complicated programming, they simply need to know and see the benefits of using ICT.

As this seminar progresses I would like us to explore some of the best ways we have done this so far. Is there an activity that you have found that has stimulated members of your department to get involved? If you haven't found such an activity, you will have by the end of this seminar. I have a few additional ideas to suggest, but would like to stimulate discussion on the issue.

1 Cox M., Preston C. and Cox K. (1999) 'What factors support or prevent teachers from using ICT in their classrooms?' Paper presented at the BERA Conference, University of Sussex, September.
2 Haydn T., Computers in History - Rhetoric, reality and the lesson of the past chapter in Haydn T., Counsell C., (2002) History, ICT and Learning in the Secondary School, London, RoutledgeFalmer.
3 DfEE (1997) Connecting the Learning Society, London, DfEE.
4 Walsh, B (1988) 'Why Gerry likes history now: the power of the word processor', Teaching History, 93: 6-15.

Edited by Andrew Field, 21 May 2003 - 07:38 AM.



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#2 Guest_andy_walker_*

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 08:42 AM

I agree wholeheartedly that we should use ICT primarily when it benefits our history teaching and students learning. However I would also argue that we have a broader duty to try and adapt our day to day teaching to new learning technologies. We have a cross-curricular responsibility for a number of "themes" including ICT under the law. Whether we agree with the rather artificial central imposition of these “themes” when done properly and in a cross-curricular way they constitute rather good practice.

Access to kit is a huge issue for most teachers. I am very lucky that I have access to a Humanities suite of networked Internet broadband ready computers in an ICT specialist school, but I know this is not the case everywhere. Where access is less than ideal perhaps schools should be auditing the effectiveness of the current use of the facilities they do possess? Interesting I find that in my Technology College the cross curricular computer rooms get very busy and booked up near the end of term when “teachers” have given up “teaching”! I wonder if others have observed a similar phenomenon in their own institutions. Significant numbers of teachers seem to see a computer-based lesson as a soft option and use the facilities at a very low level..... How can this be tackled?

#3 Paul Smith

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 10:09 AM

Some initial thoughts:


The computer suite as the last hope of the exhausted is interesting.

The subject's requirement first , how ICT supports and enhances that learning "second".

Our college excedes all the benchmark figures in terms of computers per student etc but the quality of the use does vary. I hold my hand up to guilt on occasions (even as the ILT Champion - don't ask its an FE/Sixth Form thing).

The key factor is in reviewing and revising schemes of work to see how and where ICT will deliver?

I am also increasingly of the opinion that ICT is in the wrong physical place if it is computer suite based. It needs to be networked and in the classroom. This emphasises the integrated role ICT will play in the subject.
I appreciate the financial implications but I sometimes feel it is not finance but an intellectual or cultural block - what no Learning Resource Centre!

Some of the most innovative work in the use of IT in the curriculum is being done in those FE colleges who have committed themselves wholeheartedly to delivering out in the community (Newark is a splendid example). Perhaps we should see the classrooms as the equivalent of "village halls" and move the provision to the community not the community come to the centre.

I raised this point elsewhere - we also need to empirically demonstrate the benefit the use of ICT gives to students - particularly to those "Luddites" who cannot understand the need for Humanities subjects to access ICT. They still exist.

It doesn't work for all, I have found that my most "able" students, in History and Law, much prefer textbooks - that may be me, that may be cultural - is it a common experince?



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#4 jo norton

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 10:56 AM

ICT is a significantly powerful tool for history - it helps selection, data handling and allows access to interpretations and sources. I will continue to use ICT in History for as long as it helps develop historical skills - it allows pupil to leap frog the lower skills and move into high quality. ICT can allow weaker pupils access to these higher skills - pupils are more confident to try when the work is on the computers.

I agree with Andrew that one of the main issues in using ICT is

confidence in using ICT

To help with this when a member of our dept has a great ICT lesson a complete plan including all IT instructions is prepared - this means the less ICT literate can still use the lesson, and with more confidence that they won't be asked a technical question. We also have a few pupils in each group designated IT helpers whose job it is to help deal with any technical problems.

#5 Elle

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 01:15 PM

Where access is less than ideal perhaps schools should be auditing the effectiveness of the current use of the facilities they do possess?


From my point of view then, they should assess the reasons why they put 4 computers in the back of my classroom for the entire humanities dept., refused to give me a printer for 6 months, refused to refill it with ink when it ran out and refuse to take account of the disruption caused to my lessons when somebody sends a few of yr 10's finest nutters to my classroom to "work" on the computers. I am all in favour of using ICT in teaching history, but the provision I have been given is basically useless. We can never get into the IT suits anyway, and although we now have a projecter it has been stolen by the geog. dept. as an alternative to showing videos and colouring in.

You're scared of mice and spiders, but oh-so-much greater is your fear that one day the two species will cross-breed to form an all-powerful race of mice-spiders, who will immobilize human beings in giant webs in order to steal cheese.

 


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Posted 21 May 2003 - 01:32 PM

From my point of view then, they should assess the reasons why they put 4 computers in the back of my classroom for the entire humanities dept., refused to give me a printer for 6 months, refused to refill it with ink when it ran out and refuse to take account of the disruption caused to my lessons when somebody sends a few of yr 10's finest nutters to my classroom to "work" on the computers. 

This sounds awful... I wonder how common this type of thing is?
The idea of "sending" children away to work on computers is also all too common here .... and guess what they're the ones the teacher would rather not have in their classroom!

It really frustrates me when there are departments like my own doing some quite creative things with ICT (and spending a lot of time and effort on preparation), when we can't get access to a room because English is typing up an assignment or Geoggers are copying and pasting vast chunks of Encarta or someone is playing games because its the end of term..

A lot ofschools spend a lot of money (not yours by the sound of it Elle) on expensive kit without putting systems in place to ensure it is used productively and purposefully. How to best manage cross curricular could be an interesting discussion thread in its own right.

#7 Paul Smith

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 01:44 PM



Where access is less than ideal perhaps schools should be auditing the effectiveness of the current use of the facilities they do possess?


From my point of view then, they should assess the reasons why they put 4 computers in the back of my classroom for the entire humanities dept., refused to give me a printer for 6 months, refused to refill it with ink when it ran out and refuse to take account of the disruption caused to my lessons when somebody sends a few of yr 10's finest nutters to my classroom to "work" on the computers. I am all in favour of using ICT in teaching history, but the provision I have been given is basically useless. We can never get into the IT suits anyway, and although we now have a projecter it has been stolen by the geog. dept. as an alternative to showing videos and colouring in.

Elle,

Difficult to advise without knowing the power structure at your school. I would suggest "discussing " with middle and senior management the essential needs of history - giving examples of where it would be essential in the learning process (plenty of material on this site) - although I suspect you've already done this! Have you a sympathetic governor or lea advisor who could put pressure onto higher places?

Sending in the clowns without notice is unprofessional and just downright bad manners. (I write this with four of our prize idiots sat opposite - but the IT seems to act as a sedative - not that they are doing work). I'm afraid as far as the projector goes - if it is the History depts - dawn raid and location in locked and bolted stockroom.

It depresses me, given the amount of money thrown at ICT etc by various govts, how badly it has been spent. (I.e I assume that like FE/Sixth Forms the money supporting teachers to buy their own computers could only be spent at Ripyouoff world, when many of us use local companies who could make and deliver systems at half the cost).

I can only suggest you continue to campaign for History's rights in your school until you become such a pain they give in to shut you up.

Good luck


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#8 Elle

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 01:55 PM

Ok, I have one small confession to make here, the last time I tried to use the projector I broke my laptop!

You're scared of mice and spiders, but oh-so-much greater is your fear that one day the two species will cross-breed to form an all-powerful race of mice-spiders, who will immobilize human beings in giant webs in order to steal cheese.

 


#9 Paul Smith

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 02:02 PM

Don't worry - just had an interview where presentation was required. The laptop they provided had no A drive and it took three successive visits from a technician, with three successive CD rom drives before the fourth produced the A drive.


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#10 Elle

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 02:09 PM

A lot ofschools spend a lot of money (not yours by the sound of it Elle) on expensive kit without putting systems in place to ensure it is used productively and purposefully. How to best manage cross curricular could be an interesting discussion thread in its own right.

We spend lots of money on stuff, we have just got a new sports hall (which is falling apart in places and someone has already tried to set it on fire) and they are going to turn Longueville Gym into a cyber cafe (if and when we ge business and enterprise status). However, what nobody seems to have pointed out, is that Longueville Gym is made almost entirley out of glass... Could be interesting.

Edited by Elle, 21 May 2003 - 02:10 PM.

You're scared of mice and spiders, but oh-so-much greater is your fear that one day the two species will cross-breed to form an all-powerful race of mice-spiders, who will immobilize human beings in giant webs in order to steal cheese.

 


#11 Dan Moorhouse

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 05:40 PM

In my opinion history teachers should make use of ICT as it allows them to cater for a wider variety of needs than they could effectively do otherwise. Previous seminars have discussed the notion of the student as teacher - ICT aids this via the presnetation tools it offers; similarly catering for a wider range of learning preferences can be achieved more discreetly if ICT is used effectively.

Clearly the latter point requires fairly good equipment, a range of available resources and enough free time to plan for it properley - but it it viable and is done frequently within the school I work in - by most departments. Examples of this in action: we have software that allows the teacher to monitor all screens within a classroom. It also allows the teacher to interact via audio or text to any workstation. This means that a general instruction can be given to a group about any particular task - then differentiated materials can be quickly sent to individuals or groups of students - simple case of clicking a button. With regards the historical skills being delivered this has been varied:

One example would be creating newspaper articles. Students have a template that's stored on the network and a range of sources that they can delve into to select quotations and supporting evidence. Using the interact option I can easily select the Gifted and talented group within the class and send them a set of sources that are wide in terms of political opinion, varied in terms of the level of inference required to comprehend them etc. For this group the task can be something along the lines of 'write an objective account' with examples of newspapers websites on the Internet given as examples of how this can be achieved. Instructions can be varied and the provided templates can be modified, or removed, to create a higher level of expectation. At the other extreme the SEN group can be sent a writing frame that starts most sections, has simple instructions about formatting and that leads them to different sources in order to provide an objective response to the task set.

Clearly the above task could be done away from an ICT room. However I've found that there have been many huge advantages to utilising the ICT facilities for this type of task. First the students are able to ask for help in a discreet manner and have never shied away from doing so - they would usually fail to put their hand up and ask for help. Second, given suitable planning the tasks can be as individualised as required, which is a godsend when teaching ability based groups, particularly at the extremes of attainment and with students who are brand new to the English language. Third, the work is always presentable. Many of my students dislike the idea of their work being put on display as they are highly self conscious. ICT removes this barrier and helps me to celebrate their achievements. Fourth, the tasks can be monitored very carefully. Students use of evidence, for example, can be edited quickly and without the rigmoral of having to write it all out again. This way the historical skill can be focussed on. Fifth, students become increasingly independent in their learning. You set the framework, they can easily go beyong this and make use of CD ROM, the Internet or whatever resources are on your network to research in more depth and find a wider range of interpretations etc.

In terms of catering for different learning preferences the use of ICT makes life easier. Powerpoints for example can be creatively used to link text, sound, movies and pictures. Combined with interactive activities, be they as starters, plenaries or the main task of the lesson, these can hook many students through the range of mediums employed. At schools fortunate enough to have broadband connections and video conferencing facilities the options are far more wide reaching. Specialists can be involved with clkasswork without being in the classroom, ideas such as the collaborative areas of the students forum can be developed and students can be engaged in discussion and debate of historical topics involving students from a range of schools - thus broadening their horizons and possibly motivating them to perform well via peer pressure and/ or self pride. This forum itself shows how much can be gained from collaboration, student too can be stretched, enthused and challenged by similar ventures.

One very significant point that hasn't yet been made is the manner in which ICT can provide experiences that students wouldn't otherwise have. Roy Huggins has in the past made the point that his students would not see sites of historical interest. Making use of a digital camera and video he has been able to visualise many sites for them. Clearly this isn't quite the same as field visits, it does though enable students to appreciate sites in their context to a much larger degree than may be possible through use of a textbook, a few diagrams and the odd photo. For my own students this is certainly the case. Many can't even find their way into the city centre, all of 800 metres from the school. They don't know what churches, cathedrals or Castles are - and I can't take them to see all of these, no matter how supportive the head is of visits as they simply cannot afford to contribute to this number of visits. Using ICT in this way they can be shown many sites in a manner that is suited to their needs (Rather than the usual bought in video for Year 7 that requires a PHd in gibberish to understand). It also allows visits to be selected carefully and supported with student created materials - they get control of the digital cameras, video camera and all of the other assorted gadgets we can 'borrow' to create materials they'll use in the follow up sessions.

#12 Andrew Field

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 07:03 PM

Such good points by everyone already. To take them just a couple of them in chronological order,

Andy Walker

However I would also argue that we have a broader duty to try and adapt our day to day teaching to new learning technologies. We have a cross-curricular responsibility for a number of "themes" including ICT under the law. Whether we agree with the rather artificial central imposition of these “themes” when done properly and in a cross-curricular way they constitute rather good practice.

I deliberately avoided going in this direction because this is what I'm saying all the time at school - my role is to coordinate this cross-curriculuar use. It certainly can be extremely effective, and I hope ours is building towards such a level, but the main point I was trying to make was that it is essential for history teachers not to be tricked into teaching ICT with a history flavour. Seeing the curriculum needs from both points of view, it would be the easiest thing in the world for the school to make clear ICT demands, and then link them to history. What I feel history departments have a duty to do is to defend their subject. Most certainly welcome the ICT coordinator into the department, but make it clear that you're looking for what history can gain. As we are starting to see there is so much that history does have to gain.

Paul Smith

I am also increasingly of the opinion that ICT is in the wrong physical place if it is computer suite based. It needs to be networked and in the classroom. This emphasises the integrated role ICT will play in the subject.  I appreciate the financial implications but I sometimes feel it is not finance but an intellectual or cultural block - what no Learning Resource Centre!

This is most certainly a way that things seem to be moving. ICT does not mean ICT suite. With the approrpaite equipment and networking capability it would be fabulous to use ICT in this way. I think it is important to make the best of what you've got, thus showing the 'powers that be' the need for additional and innovative resources. You can certainly make the case for more advanced equipment if you are trying to make use of the current resources.

All of Dan's points are extremely pertinent. Read them again. Now.

I certainly agree with the impact of the change in the ICT suite - in my experience students certainly don't shy away from asking for help in the ICT room. ICT does offer potential for all areas of teaching both in terms of management, organisation and effective teaching and learning. It is clear to see how others have encouraged their teaching colleagues to make effective use of ICT - leading the way themselves...


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#13 Dan Lyndon

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 07:19 PM

I would consider myself to be a moderate user of ICT in my History lessons - I have been trying to increase the use of the various applications that have already been mentioned and have had some success with my Year 9s using Powerpoint. The biggest problem I have had is with the facilities available - we have 3 networked computer rooms but they are mainly used by the ICT dept and we have had no Internet access since September - problems with the London Grid for Learning. There is one interactive whiteboard in one of the ICT rooms but I have only been able to use it once, and 3 have been recently been put into the Maths dept, but again I am reluctant to use them as they are teaching rooms. The saving grace has been the opening of a CLC (City Learning Centre) on our site and I have had the great fortune to do three videoconferences with the Public Records Office - the education officer Philip Stanley Berridge is fantastic and very willing to adapt to your needs - on the Atlantic Slave trade, the Industrial revolution and WW1. These have been fantastic opportunities to investigate and evaluate the kind of sources that you just can't use in the classroom, for example we have looked at original documents signed by Henry VIII, or seen photographs of slaves on French slaving ships from the 1850s which have hardly been seen by anyone, let alone appear in the average textbook. To see these in glorious detail and to engage the students in real deep investigations has been not only tremendously educational but also incredibly exciting - the boys are certainly very eager to return. However I do have some concerns about the pedagogical nature of some of the videoconferences in the format that I have experienced, mainly that the students are largely passive learners and the VC can end up as just a question and answer session.

I reiterate the opinion shared by most contributors so far that the use of ICT is a confidence thing - but then so are using starters and plenaries, role plays, etc. My approach is that what we are doing is like trying to eat an elephant - if you try it all in one go then that is impossible, but if you break it down into manageable chunks then you will be able to eat your elephant.
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#14 Dan Moorhouse

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 08:45 PM

There is a large bank of ICT-based history lessons produced by teachers.  The sites connected with this forum, and the Association of Teachers' Websites have many pre-prepared lessons that have been tried and used in the classroom. There is an awesome number of online resources, many of which I have tried to link to in the topic sections of my SchoolHistory.co.uk site. It has been referred to before, but the teachers' guide available from the Public Record Office's Learning Curve website offers excellent, extensive and practical guidance.

An immense amount of work has been done to help teachers make effective use of ICT within history - and naturally this work is continually developing.  Criticially assess the ICT-based history lessons you come across.  Do they help you achieve your historical aims and objectives? Can you identify how they will benefit your students?  If so, use them - if not, post on this forum or feedback to the site owners so the activities can be appropriately developed.

I'd also be interested in peoples comments about these issues. It's very easy for us to create lessons that we know that WE can use. They are often written with our own students in mind and know exactly how we'd intend to deliver them. That's fine for US but may not cater for the needs of other teachers.

Collectively the sites at the top of this page offer easily a hundred lessons plus umpteen revision activities, quizzes etc that have a none skills based focus. The method of delivery varies from site to site, as indeed does the purpose of the site. I believe that the variety of styles and purposes of site is a strength of the online history teachers community. We can work together to create a very broad range of activities, resources and lesson ideas. However, we can only do this in a coherent and collaborative manner if we know what we've missed out - so, a few questions to pose, similar to Andrew's and hopefully supporting the point he has already made:

What skills are NOT delivered via these sites? (general or per unit of study)
What areas of content are not catered for effectively online yet?
How could current resources be improved to enhance their effectiveness within schools?
What could you do to help improve the quality of ICT resources available to teachers?

NB: early users of Schoolhistory.co.uk and Schoolshistory.org.uk may recall both sites being slated on one of the government run forums a few years ago for NOT covering any historical skills - have things changed?

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Posted 21 May 2003 - 09:51 PM

NB: early users of Schoolhistory.co.uk and Schoolshistory.org.uk may recall both sites being slated on one of the government run forums a few years ago for NOT covering any historical skills - have things changed?

Interesting comments...
ICT does seem to lend itself to a few specific areas of our work - developing research skills, scaffolding research, testing factual recall, assisting revision, home school links, advice, exam preparation (and let's face it "cramming"), and I think this is reflected in all our sites, (certainly mine) to a greater or lesser extent. It isn't exclusively the case however, increasingly we see more good actitvities on causation, interpretations etc. and learning Curve offers some excellent skills material in their snapshots stuff which I am sure many of us use. Moreover some of the interactive lessons on schoolhistory and others have a very clear skills focus.

However, none of the teacher created sites are designed I am sure as an integreted learning package for history. The use of them is only a part of what we do with our students so I would suggest the criticism, such as it was, was a little unfair.

I agree it would be very helpful to hear from users what they would like to see more and less of




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