Assume you only need help with the 'Why did the Nazis fail in 1923?' aspect of the question then?
NB 1923 is the year of the Munich Putsch - so in addition to considering the wider reasons for lack of support for the Nazi Party in the early 1920s if I had set this question I'd also expect an analysis of the failure of the Putsch itself.
You need to consider the following factors:
- The multiplicity of right-wing parties in Germany and the fact that there was little at this stage to distinguish the Nazis from the others. It was very much a Bavarian party rather than one widely known in Germany. (also look at the election results for 1920)
- Linked with this is the size (small) of the Party in the early '20s (try to find statistics) and bear in mind that this is before the restructuring of the Party following Hitler's release from jail in 1925. ie the subdivision of Germany into gau for the purposes of Party organisation did not yet exist, nor did the subservience of the SA to the Party machine. The HJ did not yet formally exist nor did the SS. Goebbels was not yet in charge of propaganda etc etc.[In other words you need a knowledge here of what happened after Hitler's release in 1925]
- Look too at the fact that Stresemann had introduced the Rentenmark before the Putsch in November and that the hyperinflation crisis was essentially over. (though that didn't mean that the political repercussions were over too since Stresemann's actions - eg calling off the passive resistance - were not popular with those on the right)
- Consider the fact that the Nazis had little support from the ruling elite prior to 1923 (unlike 1933) and no major finanacial support from 'big business' as yet.
- Look at which social classes (urban working class) the Nazis tended to target in these early stages and consider how well they managed to compete with the KPD. (as compared with the switch in tactics after 1928)
I assume you have studied the Munich Putsch in some detail and so know why that particular attempt to sieze power failed?
All of that should help with what you say you need to focus on. Any good A Level text which focuses on Weimar Germany should have detailed info.
Also very good indeed is the Nazi Documentary reader by Noakes and Pridham. You want Volume 1. It may be a bit hard going for you though. Look in a decent library for this.
Does that help enough?
Edited by Mrs Faithorn, 22 December 2005 - 10:08 PM.